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Tupan is the thunder god among the Guarani Indians of Paraguay and Brazil. They envision him as a human being seated on a trough, noisily crossing the sky. He is associated with the Christian God. Even though Christianized, several Guiana and Amazonian tribes attribute thunder to fantastic birds beating their wings during storms, also resulting in the thunder-bird mythologies of North America. (This same concept is found in African mythology, see Concept of lightening.) Within the area praying to Mother Earth for fertility of their crops and flocks remains the main Pagan worship among the Inca peasants. Although they have little idea of her personality, they happily associate her with the Virgin Mary (see Mama Quca). A.G.H.
Grimal, Pierre, Larousse World Mythology, Secaucus, New Jersey, Chartwell Books, 1965. p. 483